I previously provided information regarding tiny pests. BUT, big garden pests such as four-footed creatures and birds can cause more damage than insects in many suburban and rural gardens.
Fencing is the best solution, including an overhead screen if the attack is aerial. A fence set two feet into the ground and rising 6 to 8 feet above it will discourage all but the most intrepid burrowing hedgehogs and leaping deer. Some people have luck with low electric fences, scarecrows, reflectors, noisemakers, plastic owls and snakes, radios, whirligigs, scattered blood meal, or bags of human hair. Bars of soap suspended from trees have been found to repel deer. Other people plant a favorite vegetable of the animal pest on the garden border as an offering, hoping the unwelcome visitor will go no further.
Depending on the area of the country you live in, you will have different kinds of animals, therefore, I will focus on the most common, which are our own pets like the cats and dogs. While cats are in your garden they use it for a bathroom and you may not like stepping into it while gardening. Plant catnip in a special area just for them. Sprinkle one of the following in and around the area to be protected: hot Cayenne pepper, mothball crystals or flakes, (be careful with mothballs as young children may think they are candy), or dry Borax soap. To prevent cats from using your garden as a toilet, work chicken fertilizer by itself, and/or orange peels and coffee grounds into the top layer of soil.
Dogs also use your garden as their own bathroom. Use mothballs, dried blood meal, a long broom or fat, rolled-up newspaper to keep dogs out. Some of the items used for cats may also work to keep dogs out. The lawn & garden stores also have various sprays available.
I use old cement field tiles around my tomato and pepper plants to protect them against my dog running through the garden and breaking them when they are young. The tiles keep the plants cool during a hot day and warm if the temperatures drop in the spring or early summer, and safe from a strong wind.